||Cow pasture, plots ~25 meters from the fence; actively grazed, but no animals on the plot at sampling time. Temperate open grazed grassland. Generally open with small clumps of trees. The particular grassland about 3 ha in size, but surrounded by other similar grazed or mowed grassland plots. Flat landscape. The grassland is in active use. Natural vegetation with no signs of additional sowed culture grasses/forbs. ~40 meters NNW from a gravel road. A small clump of trees (Betula sp, Populus tremula, Juniperus communis) nearby. Festuca rubra and Achillea millefolium dominance. Other plant species include: Galium verum, Veronica sp., Trifolium spp., Lotus sp., Leontodon sp., Anthoxanthum odoratum, Medicago sp. Actively grazed pasture, a ditch near the plots, close to an abandoned barn/shelter. Replicate sites about 150 meters apart. Samples taken on an extremely dry year.